Sunday, 16/12/2018 | 12:23 UTC+8
  • Concrete guidelines for developers – Sewage Treatment Plants in Malaysia

    If follow Sewage Services Department (JPP) / National Sewerage Company (IWK) guidelines there’s still a need to line the Sewage Treatment Plants tanks with High Alumina Cement. There is a ‘Guidelines for developers – Sewage Treatment Plants’, in the manual which states that:- Concrete structures shall be designed in accordance with MS 1195, except that

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  • Standard strength of a cement

    The standard strength of a cement is the compressive strength determined in accordance with EN 196-1 at 28 days and shall conform to the requirements in table below. Three classes of standard strength are included: class 32,5, class 42,5 and class 52,5 The strength classes are determined based on controlled testing with standard sand to

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  • Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) in concrete

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) can cause serious expansion and cracking in concrete, resulting in major structural problems and sometimes necessitating demolition. Cause of alkali-silica reaction ASR is the most common form of alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete; the other, much less common, form is alkali-carbonate reaction (ACR). ASR and ACR are therefore both subsets of AAR.

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  • An on site simple test for determining workability is the SLUMP TEST.
    How to improve and factors affecting Workability of Concrete

    Workability is one of the physical parameters of concrete which affects the strength and durability as well as the cost of labor and appearance of the finished product. Concrete is said to be workable when it is easily placed and compacted homogeneously i.e without bleeding or Segregation. Unworkable concrete needs more work or effort to

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  • The blending of GGBS & Fly Ash in cement

    It is common that incorporating Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS) and / or Fly Ash in the Portland Cement (OPC). It will be advantages in lowering Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (RCPT) and minimising Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) risk. In fact, triple blends (OPC / GGBS / Fly Ash) performs better than either the OPC/Fly Ash

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  • Blended Cement in Malaysia

    In Malaysia, regarding the cement specifications on use of blended cement with 25% Fly-Ash, cement supplier sometimes will propose on use of Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS) as an alternative to Fly-Ash based on the logistic reasons, location of factory, stock available & etc. 25% Fly-Ash specified in the project will fall under CEM IIB-V

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  • In term of low temperature, GGBS or Fly Ash better?

    In Malaysia, for temperature control, both partial substitution of Portland Cement (OPC) with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS) and Fly Ash reduces heat generation. However, the level of GGBS substitution can be higher, thus the reduction of temperature is higher then Fly Ash. For example, for a 2m thick section, a 30% Fly Ash replacement

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  • Temperature rise in concrete

    In Malaysia, generally for 1m3 size concrete ~ the rule of thumb is about 13.5°C/100kg Portand Cement (OPC), for 380kg cement content, the temperature rise will be 51.3°C + 30°C or equal to 81.3°C.   If blended cement is used, the temperature rise will be proportionately lower. As the specification always allows the use of

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  • Type of cement used in Marine

    For type of cement to be used in marine conditions, there is the latest BS 8500-1:2006 + A1:2012. In Malaysia, this British Standard is also adopted into MS 523-2:2011 Concrete Specification. Please refer to the extract of BS 8500-1:2006 + A1:2012, marine conditions is under Exposure Classes XS1- XS3 (Table A.1) . Hence, considering the

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  • GGBS and Fly Ash in Malaysia

    In MS EN 197-1 on cement specifications stipulates 27 common cement, where both Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS) and Fly Ash are two commonly ‘recycled’ materials used to partially replace Portland Cement (OPC) in cement production. These materials are also pozzolanic in nature i.e. they consume the lime from OPC hydration to form additional cementitious

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